To remove the cassette, hold it from spinning using a chain whip. Insert the lockring tool use the FR-5 series , and turn the tool counter-clockwise. The locking ring will unthread from the freehub and the cassette will lift upward. To install the cassette, lubricate the threads inside the cassette stack. Place the cassette on the freehub body, and use a tool to turn the locking ring clockwise.
Secure to approxiately 40Nm. Older freehubs may lack notches or splines adjacent to the axle. These older freehub cogs did not use a freewheel or cassette lockring removal tool.
There will be a dust cap for the hub on the right side, but no recessed notches or lockring splines at all. The first cog acts as a lockring for the other cogs. Freewheel Removal and Installation View Article. Freewheel — Destructive Removal View Article. Freehub Service View Article. A last step taken by Revox produced even more advanced cassette drives with electronic finetuning of bias and equalization during recording. Revox also produced amplifiers, a very expensive FM tuner and a pickup with a special parallel arm mechanism of their own design.
After which this company also got in financial difficulties and Studer had to save itself by folding its Revox-branch and all its consumer products except their last reel to reel recorder the B Note that while Nakamichi violated the tape recording standards to achieve the highest dynamics possible, producing non-compatible cassettes for playback on other machines, both Tandberg and Revox kept to the standards and produced cassettes which could be played back on other machines.
Their finest machine with HX Pro was the Beocord , which indeed performed excellently as far as electronics were concerned. However, this machine possessed only one drive motor and many belt and wheels in a complicated arrangement. Most of them favored Nakamichi, Tandberg or Revox instead, which all were mechanically much more reliable over the years. As they became aimed at more casual users, fewer decks had microphone inputs. Dual decks became popular and incorporated into home entertainment systems of all sizes for tape dubbing.
Although the quality would suffer each time a source was copied, there are no mechanical restrictions on copying from a record, radio, or another cassette source.
Even as CD recorders are becoming more popular, some incorporate cassette decks for professional applications. An assortment of boomboxes. Applications for car stereos varied widely. Auto manufacturers in the U. As the cost of building CD players declined, many manufacturers offered a CD player, but some cars, especially those targeted at older drivers still offer the option of a cassette player, either by itself, or sometimes in combination with a CD slot.
The newest cars often are not designed to accommodate any cassette drive, but the auxiliary jack advertised for MP3 players can also be used with portable cassette players. A head cleaning cassette. Although the cassettes themselves were relatively durable, the players required regular maintenance to perform properly.
Head cleaning may be done with long swabs, or cassette-shaped devices that could be inserted into a tape deck to polish the heads and remove smudges and dirt. Similarly shaped demagnetizers used magnets to degauss the deck, which kept sound from becoming distorted. A common mechanical problem occurred when a worn-out or dirty player rotated the supply spool faster than the take-up spool or failed to release the heads from the tape upon ejection.
This would cause the magnetic tape to be fed out through the bottom of the cassette and become tangled in the mechanism of the player. Creation of compilations was usually by re-recording rather than splicing sections of songs because of the much smaller tape area. Applications Audio A dual compact cassette tape based Panasonic answering machine. The Compact Cassette was originally intended for use in dictation machines.
The Compact Cassette soon became a popular medium for distributing prerecorded music—initially through The Philips Record Company and subsidiary labels Mercury and Philips in the U.
As of , one finds cassettes used for a variety of purposes such as journalism, oral history, meeting and interview transcripts and so on. In the s, Tascam introduced the Portastudio line of four and eight-track cassette recorders for home studio use. Each track could be recorded to, erased or played back individually, allowing musicians to overdub themselves and create simple multitrack recordings easily, which could then be mixed down to a finished stereo version on an external machine.
To increase audio quality in these recorders, the tape speed was sometimes doubled in comparison to the standard; additionally, dbx, Dolby B or Dolby C noise reduction provided compansion compression of the signal during recording with equal and opposite expansion of the signal during playback , which yields increased dynamic range by lowering the noise level and increasing the maximum signal level before distortion occurs. Multi-track cassette recorders with built-in mixer and signal routing features ranged from easy-to-use beginner units up to professional-;evel recording systems.
However, many claimed that the medium was ideal for spreading new music and would increase sales, and strongly defended at least their right to copy their own records onto tape. Cassettes were also a boon to people wishing to tape concerts unauthorized or authorized for sale or trade, a practice tacitly or overtly encouraged by many bands with a more counterculture bent such as the Grateful Dead.
Blank Compact Cassettes also were an invaluable tool to spread the music of unsigned acts, especially within Tape trading networks. When the boombox was introduced in , it became a means to share new beats and raps with neighbors.
Of course, the technology for recording on magnetic tape had existed since , but early reel-to-reel machines were bulky and prohibitively expensive.
However, long before the first low-quality recordable compact cassettes were introduced in followed by commercial music cassettes in , experimental composers were looking at tape as a potential musical instrument. At the same time, composer Halim El-Dabh was conducting similar tape experiments in Egypt. Stockhausen in particular became known for his tape collages of ambient sounds and other music. American experimental composer John Cage also dabbled in tape music. Eventually, composers like Steve Reich, who worked at the center, figured out how to translate his strange tape compositions into live performances.
When high-fidelity cassettes and less-massive recorders hit the consumer market in the s, creative types on a budget also attempted similar experiments at home. Cassette-tape technology was upending the power structures that once controlled ideas: The power of recording and distributing music now belonged to the people, not just industry executives trying to churn out hits. A cassette starts to lose its ability to capture the super high frequencies after around 12K.
The equivalent of that is when you put a blanket over a speaker. A lot of early hip-hop took to tape in a nice way: the drum beats just sounded really good when they were smashed on cassette. Before cassette tapes, the barriers to making and distributing an album were extraordinarily high. Listen at HalTapes. Cassettes would be the way for punk artists to go.
Instead of corporate music, you had very unique viewpoints of not just music, but reality. Today, a superficial measure of success might mean having your MP3 single featured on a well-trafficked blog—when listeners might not even pay attention or engage with the rest of your album.
I felt like it was music that needed to define the parameters of its own success. Cassettes allow our output to have a handmade quality because we are dubbing everything. Tapes on display at a recent Burger Records pop-up shop in Tokyo, Japan. Their scrappy little company ended up leading the charge in the current cassette-tape trend.
We need, like, 5 grand to put out a vinyl album. For a cassette, we can just take change and recycle cans and get a hundred couple bucks together. After a couple of years, the tapes started paying for themselves. Eight years later, Burger Records, located in Fullerton, California, has put out more than vinyl albums and around cassettes, as well as numerous CDs and VHS tapes, making it one of the fastest growing independent music labels in the world.
In fact, Burger often offers the same albums in four formats—cassette, vinyl, CD, and computer download. Making tapes for bands that are on other labels is just really good PR sense for them to have another stream of influence coming for a younger generation. Home-taping pioneer R.
Stevie Moore , whose dad, Bob Moore, played with Elvis and Roy Orbison, began recording and mailing out tapes from his Nashville home in Around the same time, German krautrock band Faust started offering bootleg tapes only through mail, and San Francisco music and performance art group the Residents was selling cassettes to their member fan club by post.
Bands inside the Iron Curtain, like Plastic People of the Universe, employed easily concealed tapes to spread their anti-conformist anti-Communist message. Listen at Cassette Art Classics. Each review would include a postal address so tapers could write to each other to buy or trade cassettes. Sure, an artist can make several copies of a cassette, but every copy is slightly different than another. And those people sent their tapes back to us, so there was a give-and-take of creative ideas.
It was really exciting. Quickly, Ingels was overwhelmed with cassette submissions, and the column expanded to take up pages and pages. Campau would circle the reviews of tapes he was excited about, while Margolis would mark them with checks or crosses. To be honest, it was a lot more fun getting letters and packages in the mail than opening emails. Oh, that sounds really cool. In fact, Al Margolis started his cassette label, Sound of Pig , in in order to get more cassettes.
We started recording our music, and then I started recording some of my own stuff. But there was so much stuff I wanted to hear. Dozens of homegrown cassette labels sprang up all over the U.
McGee says that low overhead costs have always been a part of the magic of cassettes. Tapes even allowed high school bands and church choirs to record and distribute their performances locally—something those communities could never do before. Back then, we were recording stuff on one of those Panasonic mono shoebox recorders that people were using for lectures.
A few months ago, Debbie sent me 54 cassettes of original recordings that we had made in our crappy little apartment that we later chose for actual releases on the Cause and Effect label. Before that, about the only thing that we had were vinyl records, and very few people I knew could afford to get a record pressed. Evangelical Movement Of Wales. Sing Mission Praise Volume 3 Cassette. CORC Rev Vernon Higham-Revelation 6 v 17 Cassette.
Got one to sell? You may also like. Make an offer. Nintendo Switch Console - Neon with improved battery. Shop by category. Genre see all. You know, they had their own courts. Remember when they took Jesus before Pontius Pilate?
There were certain boundaries to the courts that the Pharisees, Saducees, and Jews had and so they turned Jesus over to the Romans. Or, how they wanted to stone the woman who was caught in adultery. Now, if you can think of any area of your life right now that you are not living in the fullness of the promise and word of God in these five areas, you have a right today to ascend the courts of heaven and petition the Ancient of Days to come and pronounce judgment in your favor.
I've been in meetings when the Lord gave us permission to make decrees, resulting in numerous testimonies coming out after. Supernaturally, several people had thousands of dollars appear in their bank account right after the session! One lady said a court judge called her from his home at 11 p. Another report was a phone call from someone who learned that their son was released from prison right away, even though his sentence was originally set for much longer.
There are situations that receive supernatural intervention by God, when events are out of our hands, because a higher court system has come into place!
God is inviting you to approach His throne to present your case right now. We can petition God together for His judgment and make apostolic declarations and decrees. Remind God of the prophetic promises you received and then name each injustice. Now listen, God is also entrusting us today to begin proclaiming liberty to the captives and the opening of the prison to those who are bound.
We can say "Restore! He gave us authority to set the captives free, in Jesus' Mighty name! Now pray with me to execute judgment on earth and to proclaim God's favor in our lives: PRAYER God, today, we are petitioning the court of heaven and we petition You, the One who is faithful and just, the One who is true!
The Holy ones today are approaching the courtroom in heaven where judgment is made; divine judgment for divine justice on behalf of the bound and the afflicted and the oppressed. Thank you, Lord, that today we can stand in the council of heaven as prophetic voices, as mighty ones and judges, and rulers on this earth with dominion to make the decree.
Today, Ancient of Days, with all respect we come before your throne and we make petitions and we make requests. God, together we are petitioning the council members in heaven right now, requesting that the host of heaven begin to hear, with You, the Ancient of Days upon Your throne, concerning where we need Your divine judgment and Your vindication to come. You are the God who rolls back the reproach. You are the God who pleads the cause of Your people, the God who pronounces judgment and favor over the saints of the Most High.
We petition You today in intercession and we present our cases. Hear them, please, God! Let the courts of heaven be open right now and let the session come into place right now. We pray that you would come into our homes and congregations -- into the midst of the mighty ones.
God, we are going to make a decree: Exaltation will come! God we loose it in heaven. Divine order coming now. BASF chrome tape used in commercially pre-recorded cassettes used type I equalization to allow greater high-frequency dynamic range for better sound quality, but the greater selling point for the music labels was that the Type I cassette shell could be used for both ferric and for chrome music cassettes.
Notches on top of the cassette shell indicate the type of tape. Type I cassettes have only write-protect notches, Type II have an additional pair next to the write protection ones, and Type IV metal have a third set near the middle of the top of the cassette shell. These allow later cassette decks to detect the tape type automatically and select the proper bias and equalization.
An exception to this standard were mechanical storytelling dolls from the s e. These toys used the Type IV notches to detect that a specially coded tape had been inserted, where the audio of the story is stored on the left channel and various cue tones to tell the doll's servos how and when to move along with the story on the right channel.
Tape length usually is measured in minutes of total playing time. The most popular varieties always marketed with a capital letter 'C' prefix are C46 23 minutes per side , C60 30 minutes per side , C90, and C The C46 and C60 lengths typically are 15 to 16 micrometers 0.
Some vendors are more generous than others, providing or meters or feet rather than meters feet of tape for a C90 cassette. Even C tapes were available at one time,  but these were extremely thin and fragile and suffered from such effects as print-through , which made them unsuitable for general use. All of these were discontinued - Maxell simplified its cassette offer to 10, 20, 60 and minute lengths, Sony exited the audio cassette market globally, and Imation , licensee of the TDK trademark, exited the consumer products market.
Some companies included a complimentary blank cassette with their portable cassette recorders in the early s. Panasonic 's was a C14 and came with a song recorded on side one, and a blank side two. Except for C74 and C, such non-standard lengths always have been hard to find, and tend to be more expensive than the more popular lengths. Home taping enthusiasts may have found certain lengths useful for fitting an album neatly on one or both sides of a tape.
For instance, the initial maximum playback time of Compact Discs was 74 minutes, explaining the relative popularity of C74 cassettes. The full tape width is 3. For mono recording the track width is 1. In stereo mode each channel has width of 0.
The "head gap" of a tape recorder refers to the space, in the direction of tape movement, between the ends of the pole pieces of the head. Without a gap the head would produce a "closed" magnetic field and so would not interact sufficiently with the magnetic domains on the tape.
A narrower gap would give a higher frequency limit but also weaker magnetization. Separate record and playback heads were already a standard feature of more expensive reel-to-reel tape machines when cassettes were introduced, but their application to cassette recorders had to wait until demand developed for higher quality reproduction, and for sufficiently small heads to be produced.
All cassettes include a write protection mechanism to prevent re-recording and accidental erasure of important material. Each side of the cassette has a plastic tab on the top that may be broken off, leaving a small indentation in the shell. This indentation allows the entry of a sensing lever that prevents the operation of the recording function when the cassette is inserted into a cassette deck. If the cassette is held with one of the labels facing the user and the tape opening at the bottom, the write-protect tab for the corresponding side is at the top-left.
Occasionally and usually on higher-priced cassettes, manufacturers provided a movable panel that could be used to enable or disable write-protect on tapes.
If later required, a piece of adhesive tape can be placed over the indentation to bypass the protection, or on some decks , the lever can be manually depressed to record on a protected tape. Extra care is required to avoid covering the additional indents on high bias or metal bias tape cassettes adjacent to the write-protect tabs. In most cassettes, the magnetic tape is attached to each spool with a leader, usually made of strong plastic.
This leader protects the weaker magnetic tape from the shock occurring when the tape reaches the end. Leaders can be complex: a plastic slide-in wedge anchors a short fully opaque plastic tape to the take-up hub; one or more tinted semi-opaque plastic segments follow; the clear leader a tintless semi-opaque plastic segment follows, which wraps almost all the way around the supply reel, before splicing to the magnetic tape itself.
The clear leader spreads the shock load to a long stretch of tape instead of to the microscopic splice. Various patents have been issued detailing leader construction and associated tape player mechanisms to detect leaders. The disadvantage with tape leaders is that the sound recording or playback does not start at the beginning of the tape, forcing the user to cue forward to the start of the magnetic section. For certain applications, such as dictation, special cassettes containing leaderless tapes are made, typically with stronger material and for use in machines that had more sophisticated end-of-tape prediction.
Home computers that made use of cassettes as a more affordable alternative to floppy discs e. Some cassettes were made to play a continuous loop of tape without stopping. Lengths available are from around 30 seconds to a standard full length. They are used in situations where a short message or musical jingle is to be played, either continuously or whenever a device is triggered, or whenever continuous recording or playing is needed.
Some include a sensing foil on the tape to allow tape players to re-cue. From as early as various patents have been issued, covering such uses as uni-directional, bi-directional, and compatibility with auto-shut-off and anti-tape-eating mechanisms. One variant has a half-width loop of tape for an answering machine outgoing message, and another half-width tape on spools to record incoming messages. Cassette tape adapters allow external audio sources to be played back from any tape player, but were typically used for car audio systems.
An attached audio cable with a phone connector converts the electrical signals to be read by the tape head, while mechanical gears simulate reel to reel movement without actual tapes when driven by the player mechanism. This feature each includes a rail to guide the tape to the spool and prevent an unclean roll from forming. The competition responded by inserting additional deflector pins closer to the coils in the lower plastic case half.
Some low-priced and pre-recorded compact cassettes were made without pulleys; the tape is pulled directly over the capstan drive. Cassette playback suffered from some flaws frustrating to both professionals and home recording enthusiasts. Tape speed could vary between devices, resulting in pitch that was too low or too high. Speed often was calibrated at the factory, and could not be changed by users. The slow tape speed increased tape hiss and noise, and in practice delivered higher values of wow and flutter.
Different tape formulation and noise reduction schemes artificially boosted or cut high frequencies and inadvertently elevated noise levels. Noise reduction also adds some artifacts to the sound, which a trained ear can hear sometimes quite easily. Wow and Flutter, however, can sometimes be added intentionally to recordings for aesthetic reasons. See Lo-fi music. A common mechanical problem occurred when a worn-out or dirty player rotated the supply spool faster than the take-up spool or failed to release the heads from the tape upon ejection.
This would cause the magnetic tape to be fed out through the bottom of the cassette and become tangled in the mechanism of the player. In these cases the player was said to have "eaten" or "chewed" the tape, often destroying the playability of the cassette. The first cassette machines e.
Early machines required attaching an external dynamic microphone. Most units from the s onwards also incorporated built-in condenser microphones, which have extended high-frequency response, but may also pick up noises from the recorder's motor.
A portable recorder format still common today is a long box, the width of a cassette, with a speaker at the top, a cassette bay in the middle, and "piano key" controls at the bottom edge. Another format is only slightly larger than the cassette, known popularly as the "Walkman" a Sony trademark. The markings of "piano key" controls soon converged and became a de facto standard. They are still emulated on many software control panels. These symbols are commonly a square for "stop", a vertically pointed triangle with a line under it for "eject", a right-pointing triangle for "play", double triangles for "fast-forward" and "rewind", a red dot for "record", and a vertically divided square two rectangles side-by-side for "pause".Oct 31, · Christ's Healing Touch is written as a complete war manual on the healing ministry, so you, like Jesus, can heal all who are "oppressed by the devil" (Acts ), and with God's power, "destroy the works of the enemy" (1 John ). Together, Volumes I & II will help give you a complete theological understanding of healing and will impart a new.